World Housing Encyclopedia

Report #: 15

1. World Housing Type

1.1 Building type: VH

  • Indigenous name for the housing type: VHICOA

1.2 Building type: VH

1.3 Region(s) Where Found: Santiago de Cuba

(Provide the name(s) of the region(s) where this housing type exists; the region might indicate state, province or a similar political entity; if possible, indicate percentage this housing type as a fraction of the entire housing stock in the region.)

1.4 Summary: Steel-braced frames

(Provide a brief summary of the housing type; the summary should include the description of building function, structural strengths and deficiencies, and expected seismic performance.)

1.5 How long has this construction type been practiced? Less than 25 years (2013, until today)

1.6 Building Occupancy: Residential, 10-19 units

2. Structural Features

2.1 Typical Number of Stories: 5

2.2 Plan Shape: Rectangular, solid

2.3 Type of Structural System: Steel: Braced frame: Concentric connections in all panels

Additional comments on structural system: Moment-resisting steel-braced frames

  • 2.3.1 Gravity load-bearing systems: The floor system, transferring the gravity loads to the beams and columns and finally to the footings
  • 2.3.2 Lateral load-resisting systems: Steel-braced frames provide the lateral resistance
  • 2.4 Type of infill wall material: Hollow concrete blocks, sandwich panels or rectangular fired clay bricks
  • 2.5 Type of Foundation: Shallow Foundation: Mat foundation
  • 2.6 Type of Floor System: Cast-in-place beamless reinforced concrete floor
    • Additional comments on floor system: Cast-in-situ flat slabs
  • 2.7 Type of Roof System and Roofing Material: Cast-in-place beamless reinforced concrete roof
    • Additional comments on roof system: Cast-in-situ flat slabs

3. Building Construction Process

3.1 Is this construction type addressed by codes/standards? Yes

  • If yes, provide the title of the code or standard and the year when the first code/standard addressing this type of construction had been issued? Include any applicable codes: NC 46:2014“Construcciones sismorresistentes. Requisitos para el diseño y construcción”

3.2 Are building permits required?

3.3 Explain unit construction cost: 56.19 CUC/m2

per m2 of built-up area expressed using a currency used in the region, and, if possible, an equivalent amount in $US in the brackets e.g. 200 Rs/m2 (5 $US/m2) (When calculating the conversion between local currency and U.S. dollars, please use the market rate if it is different from the official rate))

4. Socio-Economic Issues

4.1 Typical number of inhabitants?

  • Day: >20
  • Night: >20

4.2 Economic Level of Inhabitants*: Low-income class (poor)

*Below are the general guidelines related to the economic status of the inhabitants

  • Very Poor = lowest 10% of the population (per GDP)
  • Poor = lowest 30% of the population
  • Middle Class = from the lowest 30% up to the top 20% of the population
  • Rich = top 20% of the population

4.3 Is earthquake insurance for this construction type typically available? No

5. Earthquake Performance During Past Earthquakes

5.1 Damage patterns observed in past earthquakes for this construction type: Unknown damage

5.2 Seismic Deficiency: Structural System (Frames, walls, etc.) Unknown deficiencies

5.3 Seismic Deficiency: Foundation Unknown deficiencies

5.4 Seismic Vulnerability Rating:

Prior to filling out the information required in the table below, please read the Guidelines here:

High Vulnerability
(Very poor seismic performance)
Medium Vulnerability Low Vulnerability
(Excellent seismic performance)
Seismic Vulnerability Class -l o


  • o = Expected seismic vulnerability class
  • |- =Probable vulnerability range –lower bound
  • -| =Probable vulnerability range-upper bound

Once you have determined the seismic vulnerability class for this construction type, copy the above symbols: o, |-, and -| as appropriate and place them into the table.

  • Additional comments (e.g. explain how this vulnerability rating was assigned) Low to moderate vulnerability

Appendix 1: General Information Images

Appendix 2: References

Appendix 3: Authors

Appendix 4: Reviewer

Reviewer 1: Jaiswal, Kishor

  • Title: Research Structural Engineer
  • Affiliation: U.S. Geological Survey (contracted through Synergetics Incorporated)
  • Location: Golden CO, USA
  • Email:

PAGER-STR (Jaiswal and Wald 2008): S5

For more information regarding the PAGER-STR number, see

GEM Tax-T (Brzav et al. 2012): S+S99/LFBR/RC+RC1/FC+FC1/H:5/

For more information regarding the PAGER-STR number, see

  • whe_example_short.txt
  • Last modified: 2017/04/18 10:45
  • by Catalina Yepes