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hazard [2015/12/21 10:04]
Marco Pagani
hazard [2016/05/23 17:46] (current)
Julio Garcia
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-====== ​Seismic ​Hazard ​Assessment ​====== +[[start| Back to the SARA Project main page]] 
-The hazard work package was organised into 7 topics. Below we provide the definition of each topic: +====== ​The Hazard ​Component of the SARA Project ​======
-  * __Topic 1:__ Current status +
-  * __Topic 2:__ Active faults +
-  * __Topic 3:__ Subduction +
-  * __Topic 4:__ Earthquake catalogue +
-  * __Topic 5:__ Crustal deformation +
-  * __Topic 6:__ Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) +
-  * __Topic 7:__ Regional seismic hazard model+
  
 +Seismic hazard modelling in South America presents scientists and engineers with a diverse set of challenges. Incorporating some of the most seismically active regions on the planet, and including many of the largest earthquakes ever recorded, the South American subduction zone dominantes the earthquake hazard in the west of the continent and provides the principal tectonic force driving the shallow non-subduction earthquakes in western Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Colombia. In addition to the tectonic complexity, further challenges arise due to the current state of knowledge, with inhomogeneous characterisation of seismicity, active faulting and strong motions between different countries. ​
  
-==== Topic 1: Current status ==== +It is within this context that the seismic hazard ​component SARA established several key goals for improving ​the state of regional seismic hazard assessment in South AmericaThese include the harmonisation ​of critical earthquake ​data sets (including both historical and instrumental earthquake cataloguesseismically ​active faults, ​and local and national databases strong motion recordings), ​the development of data common standards ​for representation,​ and the development open tools for both data collection and interpretationWhilst the technical developments ​of the SARA hazard component are both necessary ​and valuableit is the active engagement ​of scientists and engineers from within ​the region ​that may best ensure that the project’s outcomes will continue to impact upon seismic hazard assessment after completion ​of the project. The SARA hazard component was organised into seven research areaswith scientific experts from different institutions across ​the region ​participating, and often leadingthe activities ​in the different topics, in response to a call for proposals published ​by GEM in 2013. The hazard work package was organised into 7 research topicsBelow we provide the definition of each topic: 
-//​Define ​the current state-of-the-art of seismic hazard ​in the region by collecting available PSHA models and porting them into OpenQuake engine format.// +  * [[hazard_rt1|Research Topic 1 (RT1):]] Assessing the Current State of Practice in Seismic Hazard Analysis in South America (SA) 
- +  ​* ​[[hazard_rt2|Research ​Topic 2 (RT2):]] Building a harmonised database of ‘hazardous’ crustal faults 
-Building a new seismic hazard model does not mean overlooking the past, previous and currently under-development models should be considered in the creation ​of a new regional ​model to ensure consistent and continuous improvement of models used to compute a probabilistic ​seismic hazard assessment ​(PSHA) study. In this context, the primary task to be achieved by the hazard component was to appraise the current **state-of-the-art** ​in (PSHA) in the South American region +  * [[hazard_rt3|Research ​Topic 3 (RT3):]] Modelling ​Subduction ​Zones in South America 
- +  * [[hazard_rt4|Research Topic 4 (RT4):​]] ​The South American Earthquake Catalogue 
- +  * [[hazard_rt6|Research Topic 6 (RT6):]] A South American ​Strong Motion Database and Selection ​of ground motion prediction equations ​(GMPEs) for seismic hazard analysis in South America 
-==== Topic 2: Active faults ==== +  * [[hazard_rt7|Research Topic 7 (RT7):]] Creation ​of a new PSHA input model for South America and calculation ​of results 
-//Build a harmonized database of shallow active faults.// +[[start| Back to the SARA Project main page]]
- +
-Current state-of-the-art Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Input models must include ​to the largest extent possible fault sources. The creation ​of a fault-based PSHA input model requires integration of existing fault data into a unified framework.  +
- +
-In much of the worldas well as in South America, seismicity is distributed over regions where active/​hazardous ​faults ​have been already identifiedbut the current information related to these tectonic structures or the format used for its compilation is not suitable ​for the PSHA modeling +
-The goal of this topic is the collection ​and harmonization of available information related to crustal neotectonic structures in continental South Americawhich are or could be considered as potential seismogenic sources. +
-The starting point will be the existing set of inventories on Quaternary deformation in the region ​and in particular: ​the “World Map of major active faults project - ILP-II2” and the “Multinational Andean ​project ​- PMA”. The information in these databases will be updated and upgraded through a collaborative effort (i.e. South American Neotectonic Group – SNG)among specialists and working groups in the region. The SNG efforts will involve specialists and neotectonic data from ArgentinaBolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay ​and Venezuela. The information will be compiled and uploaded through an uniform criteria for data inventory and cartographywhich should be agreed among participants ​in the beginning and following the standards and procedures proposed ​by GEM with these purposes. +
- +
-The resulting database will constitute a free-access dataset, available on Internet+
- +
-[[hazard:​topic2|Topic 2]] +
- +
-==== Topic 3: Subduction ​==== +
-//Creating a PSHA seismicity occurrence model for the subduction structures along the western coast of South America.// +
- +
-The areas along the west coast of South America where the Nazca Plate subducts beneath the South American ​Plate, with a rate of 7/8 cm/yr, are exposed to high level of seismic risk. This process is capable of generating a M>= 8 earthquake roughly every decade and a M>9 earthquake every century ​(DeMets et al., 1980; Norabuena et al., 1999). Several interpretations of the subduction process ​for South America ​have been proposed in the recent scientific literature, but from a hazard perspective,​ little of this information was incorporated into seismic source modes at present. +
- +
-This topic therefore is focusing on the collection ​of information useful ​for the characterization of the subduction process along the western coast of South America and the creation ​of a uniform model to be used in PSHA analysis. The task will be focused on defining ​the subduction geometry and its segmentation starting from recently developed global models of subduction geometry such as SLAB 1.0 (Hayes and Wald, 2009; Hayes et al., 2012), parametric investigations by Heuret et al. (2011) and subduction segments included in national PSHA models. The primary outcome of this task will be to define a model of the subduction interface with the aim of ensuring consistency with the OpenQuake-engine complex fault typology, which is designed for application in subduction environments.+
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  • Last modified: 2015/12/21 10:04
  • by Marco Pagani