Data overview

The social vulnerability indicators for Peru are spread over the themes of population, economy, infrastructure, education,and health. The dataset of Peruis composed by 65 indicators at level P3 of subnational geographic organization given in 1833 subdivisions distributed into parishes known in Peru as distritos. The chart below (figure 1) explains the percentage of variables in the total dataset under each specific main theme.

Figure 1


Indicators are separated into groups (or sub-indices) that share the same dimension (e.g. population, economy, infrastructure, etc.). These individual indicators are aggregated into sub-indices, and the sub-indices are, in turn, aggregated to construct the final composite model. Table 1 shows the entire dataset variables for Peru divided in the respective themes and subthemes.
Table 1. Peru variables of social vulnerability

ThemeSub-themeVariable
PopulationVulnerable PopulationFemale Population
PopulationVulnerable PopulationPopultion with No birth Certificate
PopulationVulnerable PopulationLabor Force Age 15-64
PopulationVulnerable PopulationPopulation not in the labor force (Age 0-15 and 65+)
PopulationVulnerable PopulationPopulation living in collective housing
PopulationVulnerable PopulationPopulation over 65
PopulationVulnerable PopulationHousehold with a member with a disability
PopulationVulnerable PopulationPopulation living Dwelling with unadequated physical Characteristics
PopulationVulnerable PopulationPopulation living in Overcrowded Dwellings
PopulationVulnerable PopulationHousehold - Paying monthly rent
PopulationVulnerable PopulationHousehold - Living in a Slum
PopulationVulnerable PopulationUrban Households
PopulationVulnerable PopulationRural Households
PopulationVulnerable PopulationPopulation speaking a native indigenous language
PopulationVulnerable PopulationAge dependance
PopulationVulnerable PopulationPopulation under 5
PopulationPopulation StructurePopulation
PopulationPopulation StructureTotal Urban Population
PopulationPopulation StructureTotal Rural Population
PopulationPopulation StructureMale Population
PopulationPopulation StructurePopulation Density (inhabitants/km2)
PopulationPopulation StructureNumber of Households
PopulationPopulation StructureTotal Dwellings
PopulationPopulation StructureUrban Dwelling
PopulationPopulation StructureRural Dwelling
PopulationPopulation StructureDwelling Type - House
PopulationPopulation StructureDwelling Type - Apartment Building
PopulationPopulation StructureDwelling Type - Tenement (Inquilinato)
PopulationPopulation StructureDwelling Type - Hut
PopulationPopulation StructureMulti residential building, hotels, hospitals
PopulationPopulation StructureHousehold - property owned fully paid
PopulationPopulation StructureHousehold - Property owned but paying mortgage
PopulationPopulation StructureNumber of people per Household
InfrastructureTransport and CommunicationHousehold with No Telecomunication and Information systems
InfrastructureEnergy, Water and SanitationHouseholds with access to improved water source
InfrastructureEnergy, Water and SanitationHoseholds using Kerosene, Wood, Charcoal as kitchen fuel
InfrastructureEnergy, Water and SanitationHouseholds with No Electric Energy Access
InfrastructureEnergy, Water and SanitationNo Sewage system
InfrastructureEnergy, Water and SanitationHousehols with no Lifelines, No water Elec, Sewage
InfrastructureEnergy, Water and SanitationHouseholds with NO access to improved water source
HealthHealthcare statusPopulation registered to national healthcare
HealthHealthcare statusPopulation with anytype of Healthcare service (SIS, ESSALUD, OTRO)
HealthHealthcare statusPopulation with no healthcare
HealthHealthcare statusEconomically Active Population (EAP) without health insurance
HealthHealthcare resourcesHospital Clinics
HealthHealthcare resourcesHospital , Clinics per 1000 population
EducationEducation OutcomePopulation that does not read and Write (15+ years)
EducationEducation OutcomeIlliteracy Rate
EducationEducation OutcomeFemale Illiteracy rate
EducationEducation OutcomeEducation Level completed Primary
EducationEducation OutcomeEducation Level Secondary
EducationEducation OutcomeEducation Level Completed (Superior, Technical, University)
EducationEducation OutcomePopulation with NO formal education
EducationEducation OutcomePopulation 6-16 that is Illiterate and does not attend to school
EconomyLabour MarketUnemployment Rate
EconomyLabour MarketPopulation employed in the Hotels/Restaurant sector
EconomyLabour MarketPopulation employeed in the Manufacturing Industry (15-64)
EconomyLabour MarketPopulation employeed in the Commercial Industry (15-64)
EconomyIncome distribution and PovertyPopulation in households with a high economic dependence
EconomyIncome distribution and PovertyGINI index
EconomyIncome distribution and PovertyPopulation with One unsatisfied basic need
EconomyIncome distribution and PovertyPopulation with Two+ unsatisfied basic need
EconomyIncome distribution and PovertyExtreme Poverty
EconomyIncome distribution and PovertyTotal population in poverty
EconomyEconomy ActivityPer Capita Expenditure


Final variable selection

A correlation analysis was performed on the above variables (table 1). Highly correlated variables (Spearman’s R>0.700) were eliminated from further consideration to avoid subjectively choosing one variable over another for inclusion in subsequent analyses. The correlation analysis is useful in reducing the data to a set of variables that are parsimonious and acceptable to represent the social vulnerability of the population in Peru.

Table 2. Peru final variable selection

ThemeSub-themeVariable
PopulationPopulation structureFemale Population (%)
PopulationPopulation structurePopulation Density (people/sqkm)
PopulationPopulation structureNumber of people per Household
PopulationVulnerable populationPopulation living Dwelling with unadequated physical Characteristics (%)
PopulationVulnerable populationHouseholds paying rent (%)
PopulationVulnerable populationHousehold living in Slums (%)
PopulationVulnerable populationHouseholds with memebers with Disability (%)
PopulationVulnerable populationPopulation Speaking a native Indigenous Language (%)
PopulationVulnerable populationAge dependance (%)
EconomyIncome distribution and povertyTotal Poverty (%)
EconomyIncome distribution and povertyPopulation in households with a high economic dependence (%)
EconomyIncome distribution and povertyGINI Coefficient
EconomyIncome distribution and povertyUnemployement Rate (%) EAP
EconomyLabor marketPopulation working in the Hotel/restaurant sector (15-64) (%)
EconomyLabor marketPopulation working in the manufacturing Industry (15-64) (%)
EconomyLabor marketPopulation working in the Commercial Industry (15-64) (%)
InfrastructureEnergy, water, and sanitationNo Sewage system (%)
InfrastructureEnergy, water, and sanitationHouseholds with NO access to improved water source (%)
InfrastructureEnergy, water, and sanitationHouseholds with No Electric Energy Access (%)
HealthHealthcare statusPopulation with No Healthcare (%)
EducationEducation outcomePopulation with NO formal education (%)
EducationEducation accessPopulation 6-16 that is Illiterate and does not go to school (%)



Social Vulnerability components


The social vulnerability index for Peru contains five subcomponents: vulnerable population, economy, education, and infrastructure (figure 2). The spatial distribution of the subcomponents shows high levels of social vulnerability for most part in the rural parishes away from major cities (figure 2 A,B,C). The Economy subcomponent is the exception (figure 2D) it shows high levels of vulnerability in the major cities e.g. Lima, Callao, Trujillo, Chiclayo, this is due to the fact that major cities in Peru are the economical centers and population's livelihoods are highly dependable on economic activities within the city.
Figure 2. Peru subcomponents of social vulnerability

(A) (B) (C)


(D) (E)


Integrated Risk


The spatial distribution of the integrated risk for Peru is obtained from combining the social vulnerability and the risk average annual losses indexes. High integrated risk can be understood as those subnational areas experiencing high seismicity, high physical earthquake risk, and high levels of social vulnerability. The social vulnerability index for Peru (figure 15B) reveals that rural parishes experience the highest levels of social vulnerability, The five components of social vulnerability were summed and normalized to produce the final social vulnerability score. The parishes located in the Andes mountains remain moderate to high in the scale of social vulnerability although they are located in the high seismicity zone. The integrated risk spatial distribution for Peru (figure 15C) shows high risk at both Andes mountains urban, but also in the parishes composing the major urban centers, meaning that the seismic high risk zones as shown in the physical risk index (figure 15A) play an important role when defining the integrated risk. The major urban centers of Peru located in the coastal zones are also high risk areas as they are the economic centers and hold many physical assets that would result in high losses.

Figure 3. Integrated risk index

(A) (B) (C)
  • peru.txt
  • Last modified: 2016/11/09 16:12
  • by Miguel Toquica