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Exposure and Physical Vulnerability

Within the SARA project, development of exposure databases and vulnerability functions for South America at regional, national and/or sub-national levels have been considered. The countries more prone to strong seismic events were selected for a detailed analysis. The Figure below shows the location of strong earthquakes in the region in the last forty years, based on the Global Centroid Moment Tensor Catalogue (GCMT) between 1976 and 2014; and the selected countries are highlighted, corresponding to the seven Andean states (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela)

Local exposure modelling

The Global Earthquake Model initiative has been leading local studies that will provide detailed exposure models. Several research centres from the region have been contacted, and the following institutions have established a collaboration agreement with the Foundation:

Country Local project
Chile The Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC), with CIGIDEN research group, has developed a national exposure model for Chile at block level, as well as detailed exposure models for the regions of Osorno, Rancagua and Iquique respectively.
see exposure model for Chile at block level
see detailed exposure models for Osorno, Rancagua and Iquique
Colombia EAFIT University is developing a detailed exposure model for the regions of Antioquia, Bogota, and Cali.
see detailed exposure models for Antioquia, Bogota, and Cali
Ecuador The Escuela Politécnica Nacional (EPN, FICA) is carrying out a scenario assessment for the city of Quito
see exposure and fragility model for Quito
Peru CENEPRED and GEM Foundation are carrying out a scenario assessment for the city of Lima.
Venezuela FUNVISIS is developing a national exposure model for the country.

Regional exposure model

Regional exposure model In addition to the local projects, GEM Foundation is developing, in close collaboration with local experts, an exposure model for residential buildings in South America. At regional scale, the exposure model has been updated for the seven selected countries.
Regional exposure model

Physical vulnerability

Besides the exposure models, GEM Foundation has also developed a regional Fragility Model for the South American residential buildings. The most common and representative building classes (according to the Regional exposure model) have been considered, as well as different amount of storeys and ductility levels. This model has been calibrated using previous large seismic events in the region.


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  • risk.txt
  • Last modified: 2016/11/03 09:17
  • by Catalina Yepes