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whe_example_nicaragua [2017/03/27 15:52]
Catalina Yepes [4. Earthquakes]
whe_example_nicaragua [2017/04/07 19:50]
Vitor Silva
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-====== NICARAGUA, HOUSING REPORT======+====== NICARAGUA ======
 ===== Adobe walls supporting rough timber framed roof with corrugated iron sheeting ===== ===== Adobe walls supporting rough timber framed roof with corrugated iron sheeting =====
  
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 | Other |  |  |  | Other |  |  |
  
 +----
  
 === Design Process === === Design Process ===
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 **Expertise of those involved in the design:** **Expertise of those involved in the design:**
 +----
  
 === Construction Process === === Construction Process ===
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 **Construction issues** **Construction issues**
 +----
  
 === Building Codes and Standards=== === Building Codes and Standards===
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 **Additional comments on maintenance and building condition** **Additional comments on maintenance and building condition**
 +----
  
 === Construction Economics === === Construction Economics ===
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 ---- ----
  
-==== 4. Earthquakes ====+==== 5. Earthquakes ====
  
 === Past Earthquakes in the country which affected buildings of this type=== === Past Earthquakes in the country which affected buildings of this type===
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 | 2005 | 11.198N | 6.6 | 6 (MMI) | | 2005 | 11.198N | 6.6 | 6 (MMI) |
  
 +----
  
 === Past Earthquakes === === Past Earthquakes ===
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 **Additional comments on earthquake damage patterns:** **Additional comments on earthquake damage patterns:**
  
 +----
 === Structural and Architectural Features for Seismic Resistance === === Structural and Architectural Features for Seismic Resistance ===
  
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 | Maintenance | Buildings of this type are generally well maintained and there are no visible signs of deterioration of building elements (concrete, steel, timber). | FALSE | | Maintenance | Buildings of this type are generally well maintained and there are no visible signs of deterioration of building elements (concrete, steel, timber). | FALSE |
  
 +----
  
 === Additional comments on structural and architectural features for seismic resistance === === Additional comments on structural and architectural features for seismic resistance ===
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 **Earthquake-resilient features in foundation:​** ​ **Earthquake-resilient features in foundation:​** ​
  
 +----
  
 === Seismic Vulnerability Rating === === Seismic Vulnerability Rating ===
  
-For information about how seismic vulnerability ratings were selected see the [[ | Seismic Vulnerability Guidelines]]+For information about how seismic vulnerability ratings were selected see the {{ :​wiki:​seismic_vulnerability_rating.docx ​| Seismic Vulnerability Guidelines}}
  
 |   ​^ ​ High vulnerabilty ​     ^^  Medium vulnerability ​     ^^  Low vulnerability ​     ^^ |   ​^ ​ High vulnerabilty ​     ^^  Medium vulnerability ​     ^^  Low vulnerability ​     ^^
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 **Additional comments section 5 ** **Additional comments section 5 **
 +
 +----
 +
 +==== 6. Retrofit Information ====
 +
 +=== Description of Seismic Strengthening Provisions ===
 +
 +^ Structural Deficiency ^ Seismic Strengthening ^
 +| Walls | 1. Bamboo: Several researchers have been involved with using internal horizontal and vertical bamboo, in a fashion similar to reinforced concrete masonry walls. 2. Timber ring beam: This helps to hold the walls together and facilitate transfer of loads from the roof to the walls. 3. '​Improved Adobe' has long been promoted to make adobe buildings more robust under seismic activity. The '​system'​ does not utilise another material, but focuses on the design and planning of adobe buildings by limiting opening sizes, plan dimensions, wall lengths and heights, and roof weight |
 +| Roof | Adequate connections to a top timber or concrete ring beam and stronger connections in the framing itself will help the roof act as a diaphragm. Galvanized sheet metal is now common and helps reduces high loads. For thermal and aesthetic reasons, how ever, clay tile continues to be used. |
 +----
 +**Additional comments on seismic strengthening provisions:​** The bamboo strengthening scheme is not used in Nicaragua, but is presented here as an option for making Nicaragua buildings safer.
 +
 +**Has seismic strengthening described in the above table been performed?:​** Bamboo: Yes, it has been implemented in Peru with successful structural results, but unsuccessful local adoption of the concept. The system has not been used in Nicaragua. Timber ring beam: These are common now but often limited finances ensure they are out of reach for many in Nicaragua. '​Improved Adobe':​ Some principles are used, such as small openings and walls, but others are not evident, such as buttresses.
 +
 +**Was the work done as a mitigation effort on an undamaged building or as a repair following earthquake damages?:** All work done was only as part of the mitigation efforts.
 +
 +**Was the construction inspected in the same manner as new construction?:​** ​
 +
 +**Who performed the construction:​ a contractor or owner/user? Was an architect or engineer involved?:​** Technical assistance was used in the Bamboo implementation. Timber ring beams are often incorporated in new constructions by the occupants.
 +
 +**What has been the performance of retrofitted buildings of this type in subsequent earthquakes?:​** The bamboo system and timber ring beams have proven structurally successful in earthquakes.
 +
 +**Additional comments section 6:** 
 +
 +{{:​wiki:​whe_8.jpg?​direct&​400|}} {{:​wiki:​whe_9.jpg?​direct&​400|}} {{:​wiki:​whe_10.jpg?​direct&​400|}} {{:​wiki:​whe_11.jpg?​direct&​400|}} ​
 +
 +
 +==== 7. References ====
 +
 +Guidelines for earthquake resistant non-engineered construction IAEE National Information Center of Earthquake Engineering,​ IIT Kanpur, India 2004
 +----
 +An improved means of reinforcing adobe walls- external vertical reinforcement Dowling,D. & Samali,B. & Jianchun,L. Sismo Adobe, Lima, Peru 2005
 +----
 +Adobe and rammed earth buildings: design and construction McHenry,P. John Wiley and Sons, Canada 1984
 +----
 +Building with earth: a handbook Norton,J. Intermediate Technology Group, Warwickshire,​ UK 1986
 +----
 +Earthquake database search, [[http://​www.ngdc.noaa.gov]] National Geophysical Data Centre, Date accessed: 15/3/2006
 +
 +=== Authors ===
 +^ Name ^ Title ^ Affiliation ^ Location ^ Email ^
 +| Matthew A. French |  | Architecture,​ Victoria University of Wellington | 15 Landcross Street, Wellington 4001, NEW ZEALAND | emailformatthew @hotmail.com |
 +
 +=== Reviewers ===
 +^ Name ^ Title ^ Affiliation ^ Location ^ Email ^
 +| Andrew W. Charleson | Associate Professor | School of Architecture,​ Victoria University of Wellington | Wellington 6001, NEW ZEALAND | andrew.charleson@vuw.ac.nz |
 +
  • whe_example_nicaragua.txt
  • Last modified: 2017/04/07 19:50
  • by Vitor Silva